Non-Invasive Neuromodulation

Is the application of safe, evidence-based technologies that administer light, sound, electrical stimuli directly to the nervous system or specific brain areas, such as cerebral blood flow and electrical current flow via a feedback loop. The training & treatment serves as a way to effect enduring change and corresponding improvements in functioning and quality of life.

Here’s a snapshot of some training & treatment modalities Brain Optimax offers.

HEG Biofeedback


HEG is a modality that specifically trains the prefrontal cortex in order to enhance concentration, impulse control, planning, organising, sequential processing, etc.

The frontal region of the brain is known as the “executive brain” and the “control centre”, with interconnected neurons to other vital parts of the brain. Poor blood oxygenation in the area has been shown in literature to be associated with autistic features, ADD/ADHD, depression, and schizophrenia.

In a HEG session, near or passive infrared sensors are used to detect and display blood flow dynamics on a monitor in real-time, allowing the trainee to effect positive change. By increasing blood oxygenation, metabolism is encouraged in the associated cortical area, leading to optimal functioning. HEG training has been evidenced to be efficacious in various clinical conditions such as migraine, depression, ADHD, learning difficulties, perception issues, cognitive issues, obsessive compulsive tendencies (OCD), Autism, seizures and mild-to-moderate head trauma.



Toomim, H., Mize, W., Yeekwong, P., Toomim, M., Marsh, R., Kozlowski, G., Kimball, M., Antoine Remond, A. Intentional Increase of Cerebral Blood Oxygenation Using Hemoencephalography (HEG): An Efficient Brain Exercise Therapy.

Stokes D. and Lappin, M.,  Hemoencephalography Biofeedback and Thermal Biofeedback With 37 Migraineurs. EEG Biofeedback.

Image 3: Cerebral Blood Flow Performance Chart
Image 4: Data-Derived Target for tDCS Treatment


(Transcranial Direct Stimulation)

tDCS is used in various clinical conditions, such as speech difficulties/delay, cognitive issues, stroke, epilepsy, and depression.

tDCS is a non-invasive direct current stimulation modality used to stimulate specific cortical area(s) according to individual treatment objective. The training aims to optimise the neuronal activation beneath the area treated, hence enhancing function. Positive stimulation will enhance activation of the area and used when there is under-activation. Conversely, negative stimulation decreases activation and is applied when there is over-activation.


(Audio Visual Entrainment)

AVE has been used to treat depression, anxiety, chronic pain, sleep issues, and addiction.

AVE uses repetitive light and sound stimuli to “free” the brain, which facilitates ease entry into states that promote attention, relaxation, meditation, creativity, and amelioration of anxiety and stress.

AVE has been evidenced by research to support learning, memory enhancement and boosts the body’s immune system by increasing dendrite growth. AVE can also improve athletic performance by increasing the brain’s efficiency under pressure.

Image 5: Pre/Post Brainwave Analysis
Image 6: Physiological Stress Test Analysis

Peripheral Biofeedback

Peripheral biofeedback trains the body to reduce involuntary activation under stress and go back to its initial condition, preventing prolonged stress response.

The body’s response to thoughts and emotions is very important in daily life. A constant state of stress (e.g., rapid breathing, palpitation, inordinate sweating, anxiety, rumination) upsets our homeostatic balance and poses a challenge to effective learning and career advancement.

Peripheral biofeedback assists the client to gain access to physiologic processes that are invisible & associated with stress, integrates the mind and body to improve resilience. Modalities include heart rate, respiration, control of muscle tension (EMG), galvanic skin response or the fight-or-flight response, etc.

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